Comprehensive technology for storage, transportati

2022-07-25
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Comprehensive techniques for storage, transportation and preservation of litchi 1. The storage tolerance of litchi varies with the harvest maturity. If the fruit is harvested too early and not fully developed, the quality of the fruit will be affected. If the maturity is too high, the storage tolerance is poor. For long-term storage or long-distance transportation, the appropriate harvest maturity is 8 ~ 8.5. Maturity can be judged by the color of the inner and outer pericarp and the sugar acid ratio of the fruit. The judgment criteria of different varieties are slightly different. Taking Huaizhi as an example, the evaluation criteria are as follows: exocarp segments turn red, fissure grooves turn pale yellow, endocarp is basically white, flesh titratable acid is about 0.22% ~ 0.24%, soluble solid is about 17.5% ~ 18%, and sugar acid ratio is about 70. The fruit whose endocarp has turned red indicates that it is over ripe and should not be stored and transported for a long time, but should be sold immediately

harvesting should be carried out in the early morning of a sunny day. It is forbidden to harvest in the hot sun, rainy days or Taiwan storms. Harvesting in the hot sun, the field temperature is high, the fruit temperature is difficult to drop, the peel is easy to turn brown, and the quality drops sharply. When harvested in rainy days, the fruit is prone to disease and decay during storage and transportation

lychees are generally harvested in clusters, which should be handled with care to minimize mechanical damage, especially in the eastern power shortage areas and the western power abundant areas

II. Selection and pole sorting

after picking, rotten fruit, cracked fruit, pest fruit and brown fruit shall be removed, and fruits without pests, brown spots on the peel and normal growth shall be selected for storage and transportation. For litchi exported, the fruit stalk shall also be removed

III. cleaning and preservative treatment

it mainly uses the postharvest fruits and vegetables of Huanong University, such as the beautiful fractal concept car, which uses a large number of 3D printed parts on the car interior... The litchi preservatives No. I and No. II produced by the science research laboratory are used for postharvest treatment, which has an obvious effect on restraining the browning and decay of Litchi during storage and transportation. First wash the fruit with preservative I, then rinse it with water, dry it, soak the fruit with litchi preservative II for 1 minute, and dry it slightly before packaging

IV. packaging

according to different market requirements, the packaging form can be cartons, gift boxes, lined with low-density polyethylene bags (0.03 ~ 0.04 mm thick), which can hold 2.5 ~ 5 kg; Plastic boxes lined with low-density polyethylene bags can also be used, which can hold 2.5kg or 10kg. The package entering the supermarket can be packaged in small trays and then wrapped with EVA drip free fresh-keeping film. If the fruit needs to be stored and transported under normal temperature, it can first use Rockwell or surface Rockwell hardness tester to test the hardness of the inner wall of the pipe. After precooling, it can be packed in plastic bags, and then foam boxes can be used as outer packaging, which can play a role in heat preservation

v. precooling

lychee is harvested in midsummer, with high temperature, high fruit respiration intensity and fast water evaporation, which makes the fruit turn brown and deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Therefore, the fruit should be pre cooled as soon as possible after harvest to eliminate the field heat of the fruit. Precooling methods include forced ventilation precooling, vacuum precooling, ice water precooling, etc. It is required to pack, pre cool and store in the cold storage within 6 hours after harvest. The more timely the post harvest packaging, pre cooling and warehousing, the better the preservation effect

VI. storage and transportation

the suitable temperature for storage and transportation of litchi is 3 ~ 5 ℃. Fruits stored below 2 ℃ are prone to chilling injury, which leads to pericarp browning and affects the storage effect. If the storage temperature is too high, the storage period is short. The conditions required for transportation are consistent with those for refrigeration. Refrigerated trucks and refrigerated containers are best used for long-distance transportation. If there are no refrigerated trucks and ships, the litchi can be transported by ordinary trucks. The litchi can be precooled first and transferred to the foam box before loading. At the same time, the foam board or cotton tire and other materials are used around the carriage for insulation, and an appropriate amount of ice is added. It can also be transported for about 4 days. In production, litchi is also transported directly by adding ice in foam box, but this method is risky

VII. Sales

according to the above procedures, litchi can be kept fresh for more than 30 days, and the good fruit rate is more than 90%. After storage, it will be sold on the market. If the plastic bag is not opened after leaving the cold storage conditions, the shelf time can be extended. If the foam box is used for insulation, the shelf time will be longer. But the longer the storage time, the shorter the shelf life of litchi

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